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Vacuous Argument Essay

Imagine two people try to convince you to buy their respective brands of kitchen products. The first representative gives you 10 reasons to buy her brand and the second representative only gives you 1 reason. So far, the first person seems more persuasive. After all, aren’t 10 reasons better than 1?

But what if the first person gives 5 compelling reasons to buy her brand and the other 5 reasons are obviously filler? What if all 10 reasons are silly and the second representative’s only argument is actually really compelling?

Clearly, the question of “quality vs. quantity” in the persuasion game gets complicated fast. Luckily, psychological research gives us insight into how persuaded people are by long and short messages that are strong or weak.

“Strength in Length”: Are More Arguments Always Better?

One early study presented people with a simulated court trial. The participants in the study pretended to be jurors in the case, and they listened to the arguments from the prosecution and the defense. The materials were set up so that one side had more arguments than the other. Specifically, one side would give one argument and the other would give seven. Not surprisingly, in this scenario, participants’ verdicts came down on whichever side provided more arguments.

One question researchers have asked, though, is: do more arguments make a more persuasive message even when those arguments are weak? In other words, it makes sense that 10 compelling arguments would be more persuasive than only 1 compelling argument, but it’s not clear whether having 10 really stupid arguments is any more persuasive than having just 1 stupid argument.

More Reasons Produce More Persuasion When People Aren’t Thinking Much

You can think of the “Longer is Stronger” rule as a trick people can use when they don’t want to actually read or listen to the whole message. It turns out that having more reasons is still more persuasive, even if those reasons aren’t any good, when people aren’t paying close attention to the message, As Richard Petty and John Cacioppo wrote:

If people are unmotivated or are unable to think about the message…they might invoke the simple but reasonable decision rule, “the more arguments the better.”

To test whether people really do this, one study gave people an essay containing either three reasons to adopt a new policy or nine reasons to do so. For some people, all of the reasons provided in the essay were strong, compelling reasons, but for everyone else, all of the reasons were really weak.

For people who didn’t care about the policy (so they weren’t too interested in dissecting the arguments), they were more persuaded when they saw nine reasons than when they saw three. It didn’t even matter whether those reasons were strong or weak.

Another study showed similar results. When people weren’t really paying close attention to an article, they changed their opinions more if the article was relatively long, compared to when it was shorter. Once again, the quality of the article didn’t matter—just the length.

What About When People Are Thinking?

Okay, so you have a captive audience, and they’re willing to think deeply about your persuasive arguments. Should you still strive to craft a lot of arguments regardless of their quality?

Under these circumstances, the research suggests that you should make sure your arguments are good first and then worry about how many you have. In the two studies I mentioned above, when the conditions were flipped and people were in a position to really read and consider the persuasive essays, they were more persuaded when the essays had strong arguments than when they had weak ones.

It’s possible, though, that having more good arguments can still be better than having only a few good arguments. In other words, if you know people are paying attention, you may not want to completely disregard the length of your message. In bothstudies, there’s a tendency for messages with many compelling arguments to outperform those with only a few compelling arguments (when people are paying attention).

When Longer Messages Can Backfire

Overall, it seems like it wouldn’t hurt to just make sure you have longer messages. It’ll appeal to people who aren’t paying close attention, and it can still be impressive to people who are paying attention.

Still, you need to consider the inherent strength of the claims you’re making. There’s a trend in one of the studies I’ve reviewed here where having more arguments can produce less persuasion. This is the case when (a) all of the arguments are actually weak and (b) the audience feels compelled to really process what the person has to say. You can imagine someone in this position thinking, “Wow–these aren’t persuasive at all…and there are so many of them!”

Also, other research has shown that adding weak arguments to strong arguments can water down the impact of a persuasive message. Even though a message with nine compelling reasons is better than one with just three, adding weak reasons to a message that has nine compelling ones reduces its persuasiveness.

Finally, some have suggested that messages can lose their impact if they get too long, regardless of how good its points are. If a message drags on, people can tune out, especially if the arguments become really repetitive.

Was This Article Long Enough For You?

So, as with most things, the answer to the question “Is it more persuasive to have a lot of arguments?” is: “it depends.”

When you have a lot of “objectively” persuasive reasons that you can give people, then it seems like it’s better to present all of them For people who aren’t ready to invest the time it takes to process your message, the sheer number of arguments will be persuasive. For people who are ready to think about your message, the quality (and number) will be persuasive.

If you know that you don’t have too many compelling arguments in your arsenal, then you need to think about how closely people will be paying attention. If you know that your audience isn’t likely to give your message too much thought, then pile on the vacuous arguments! If your message will be held to scrutiny, then stick with your more compelling arguments, even if there are only a few.


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Categories Blog, Persuasion Science BlogTags arguments, attitudes, elaboration, opinions, peripheral cues, persuasion, social influence

A clear sense of argument is essential to all forms of academic writing, for writing is thought made visible. Insights and ideas that occur to us when we encounter the raw material of the world—natural phenomena like the behavior of genes, or cultural phenomena, like texts, photographs and artifacts—must be ordered in some way so others can receive them and respond in turn. This give and take is at the heart of the scholarly enterprise, and makes possible that vast conversation known as civilization. Like all human ventures, the conventions of the academic essay are both logical and playful. They may vary in expression from discipline to discipline, but any good essay should show us a mind developing a thesis, supporting that thesis with evidence, deftly anticipating objections or counterarguments, and maintaining the momentum of discovery.

Motive and Idea

An essay has to have a purpose or motive; the mere existence of an assignment or deadline is not sufficient. When you write an essay or research paper, you are never simply transferring information from one place to another, or showing that you have mastered a certain amount of material. That would be incredibly boring—and besides, it would be adding to the glut of pointless utterance. Instead, you should be trying to make the best possible case for an original idea you have arrived at after a period of research. Depending upon the field, your research may involve reading and rereading a text, performing an experiment, or carefully observing an object or behavior.

By immersing yourself in the material, you begin to discover patterns and generate insights, guided by a series of unfolding questions. From a number of possibilities, one idea emerges as the most promising. You try to make sure it is original and of some importance; there is no point arguing for something already known, trivial, or widely accepted.

Thesis and Development

The essay's thesis is the main point you are trying to make, using the best evidence you can marshal. Your thesis will evolve during the course of writing drafts, but everything that happens in your essay is directed toward establishing its validity. A given assignment may not tell you that you need to come up with a thesis and defend it, but these are the unspoken requirements of any scholarly paper.

Deciding upon a thesis can generate considerable anxiety. Students may think, "How can I have a new idea about a subject scholars have spent their whole lives exploring? I just read a few books in the last few days, and now I'm supposed to be an expert?" But you can be original on different scales. We can't possibly know everything that has been, or is being, thought or written by everyone in the world—even given the vastness and speed of the Internet. What is required is a rigorous, good faith effort to establish originality, given the demands of the assignment and the discipline. It is a good exercise throughout the writing process to stop periodically and reformulate your thesis as succinctly as possible so someone in another field could understand its meaning as well as its importance. A thesis can be relatively complex, but you should be able to distill its essence. This does not mean you have to give the game away right from the start. Guided by a clear understanding of the point you wish to argue, you can spark your reader's curiosity by first asking questions—the very questions that may have guided you in your research—and carefully building a case for the validity of your idea. Or you can start with a provocative observation, inviting your audience to follow your own path of discovery.

The Tension of Argument

Argument implies tension but not combative fireworks. This tension comes from the fundamental asymmetry between the one who wishes to persuade and those who must be persuaded. The common ground they share is reason. Your objective is to make a case so that any reasonable person would be convinced of the reasonableness of your thesis. The first task, even before you start to write, is gathering and ordering evidence, classifying it by kind and strength. You might decide to move from the smallest piece of evidence to the most impressive. Or you might start with the most convincing, then mention other supporting details afterward. You could hold back a surprising piece of evidence until the very end.

In any case, it is important to review evidence that could be used against your idea and generate responses to anticipated objections. This is the crucial concept of counterargument. If nothing can be said against an idea, it is probably obvious or vacuous. (And if too much can be said against it, it's time for another thesis.) By not indicating an awareness of possible objections, you might seem to be hiding something, and your argument will be weaker as a consequence. You should also become familiar with the various fallacies that can undermine an argument—the "straw man" fallacy, fallacies of causation and of analogy, etc.—and strive to avoid them.

The Structure of Argument

The heart of the academic essay is persuasion, and the structure of your argument plays a vital role in this. To persuade, you must set the stage, provide a context, and decide how to reveal your evidence. Of course, if you are addressing a community of specialists, some aspects of a shared context can be taken for granted. But clarity is always a virtue. The essay's objective should be described swiftly, by posing a question that will lead to your thesis, or making a thesis statement. There is considerable flexibility about when and where this happens, but within the first page or two, we should know where we are going, even if some welcome suspense is preserved. In the body of the paper, merely listing evidence without any discernible logic of presentation is a common mistake. What might suffice in conversation is too informal for an essay. If the point being made is lost in a welter of specifics, the argument falters.

The most common argumentative structure in English prose is deductive: starting off with a generalization or assertion, and then providing support for it. This pattern can be used to order a paragraph as well as an entire essay. Another possible structure is inductive: facts, instances or observations can be reviewed, and the conclusion to be drawn from them follows. There is no blueprint for a successful essay; the best ones show us a focused mind making sense of some manageable aspect of the world, a mind where insightfulness, reason, and clarity are joined.

Copyright 1998, Kathy Duffin, for the Writing Center at Harvard University